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      金屬熱處理

      來源: 上海希迪管件有限公司  日期:2020-03-29 11:24:38  點擊:3951  屬于:管道材料
      熱處理Heat-treatment,熱處理是鍛后進行一次或多次重新加熱和冷卻操作的熱循環過程,以便使鍛件獲得所需的顯微組織和力學性能。常用的工業化熱處理有球化、正火、退火、淬火和回火。熱處理包括把材料加熱到某一預定溫度,在此溫度下進行“均熱”或保溫,在空氣、液體或保溫介質中按規定的速度冷卻

      熱處理Heat-treatment

      Heat treatment is thermal cycling involving one or more reheating and cooling after forging the purpose of obtaining desired microstructure and mechanical properties in a forging.
      熱處理是鍛后進行一次或多次重新加熱和冷卻操作的熱循環過程,以便使鍛件獲得所需的顯微組織和力學性能。

      Few forgings of the types are produced without some form of heat treatment.Untreated forgings are usually relatively low carbon steel parts for noncritical applications or are parts intended for further hot mechanical work and subsequent heat treatment.The chemical compositions of the steel, the size and shape of the product,and the properties desired are important factors in determining which of the following production cycles to use.

      有些類型的鍛件生產沒有某些形式的熱處理。未經過處理的鍛件通常是非關鍵結構的相對低碳鋼部件或用于進一步熱機運作和熱處理的部件。鋼的化學成分,產品的形狀和尺寸和所需的性能是決定如何選擇下一個生產周期的重要因素。

      The object of heat treating metals is to impart certain desired physical properties to the metal or to eliminate undesirable structural conditions which may occur in the processing or fabrication of the material. In the application of any heat treatment it is desirable that the “previous history” or structural condition of the material be known so that a method of treatment can be prescribed to produce the desired result. In the absence of information as to the previous processing, a microscopic study of the structure is desirable to determine the correct procedure to be followed.

      金屬熱處理的目的是使金屬獲得所需的物理性能或者消除那些在材料生產和加工中可能出現的不好的組織結構。在任何熱處理的應用中,需要知道材料的“既往史”或組織結構,以便一種處理方法可以按規定產生期望的結果。在對以往加工信息缺乏時,結構的微觀研究對接下來正確途徑的確定是必不可少的。

      The commercial heat treatments in common use are spheroidizing, normalizing, annealing, hardening,and tempering. They involve the heating of the material to certain predetermined temperatures,” soaking” or holding at the temperature, and cooling at a prescribed rate in air, liquids, or retarding media.The above treatment may be briefly defined as follows:

      常用的工業化熱處理有球化、正火、退火、淬火和回火。熱處理包括把材料加熱到某一預定溫度,在此溫度下進行“均熱”或保溫,在空氣、液體或保溫介質中按規定的速度冷卻。以上熱處理可以簡單定義如下:

      Spheroidizing----prolonged heating of iron-based alloys at a temperature slightly below the critical temperature range followed by relatively slow cooling,usually in air. Small objects of high carbon steel are more rapidly spheroidized by prolonged heating to temperatures alternately within and slightly below the critical temperature range.The purpose of this heat treatment is to produce a globular condition of the carbide.

      球化----在空氣中,對鐵基合金在略低于臨界溫度范圍內長時間加熱,再以相對緩慢的速度冷卻。在臨界溫度內及略低于此溫度之間長時間交替加熱,高碳鋼小件將更迅速被球化。這種熱處理的目的是為了獲得球狀的碳化物。

      Normalizing-----heating iron-base alloys to temperatures approximately 50℃above the critical temperature range followed by cooling in air to below the range.The purpose is to put metal structure in a normal condition by removing all internal strains and stresses given to the metal during some processing operation.

      正火----鐵基合金加熱到約高于臨界溫度范圍50℃,然后在空氣中冷卻至低于此范圍。正火的目的是去除金屬內部在一些加工工程中產生的應力和應變,而使金屬結構在一個正常的狀態。

      Annealing is a comprehensive term applied to heat treatments which may be used to remove stresses;induce softness;alter ductility, toughness, electrical, magnetic,or other physical properties,refine the crystalline structure; remove gases;or produce a microstructure. The temperature of the treatment and the rate of cooling depend upon the object of the treatment and the composition of the material being heat treated.

      退火是一個概括性的術語,是用于去除應變,降低硬度,改變延展性、韌性、導電性、磁性或者其他物理性能,改善晶體結構,去除氣體,或產生一種微觀結構的熱處理。熱處理的溫度和冷卻的速度取決于熱處理的對象和熱處理材料的成分。

      Hardening is the heating and quenching of certain iron-base alloys from a temperature either within or above the critical temperature range. The temperature of the heating and the length of time at this temperature, or “soaking period”, depend upon the composition of the material.The quenching media used may depend upon the composition, hardness desired,and the complexity of the design.

      淬火是將某些鐵基合金加熱到臨界溫度范圍內或略高于此溫度范圍并驟冷。熱處理溫度和保溫時間,或“均熱階段”,取決于材料的組成。使用的淬火介質取決于材料組成、所需硬度和設計的復雜性。

      Tempering is the reheating after hardening of iron-base alloys to some temperature below the critical temperature range, followed by any desired rate of cooling. The purpose of tempering is the removal of strains, and the reduction of hardness and brittleness.

      回火是將淬火后的鐵基合金重新加熱到低于臨界溫度范圍的某個溫度,然后以任何需要的速率冷卻?;鼗鸬哪康氖侨コ龖徒档陀捕群痛嘈?。

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